CPCL Syllabus PDF Download: Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL) has released the post wise syllabus for the recruitment of Engineers (Advt No. 1 of 2018- CPCL/HRD:03:056). Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL), is a leading profit making Public Sector Organization, a Group Company of Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., in the field of Hydro-Carbon processing with a refining capacity of 11.5 MMTPA, having refineries located in Chennai and Nagapattinam, in Tamil Nadu. CPCL invites application from young, self- motivated and energetic persons of Indian Nationality for the following positions. The number of vacancies indicated are tentative which may increase or decrease in the relevant categories at the absolute discretion of the Management. In this post we are sharing post wise syllabus. You can download complete syllabus in PDF format which is given below.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SYLLABUS
Chapter 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Taylor series, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.
Complex variables: Complex number, polar form of complex number, triangle inequality.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions, Linear regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations. Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule. Single and multi-step methods for numerical solution of differential equations.
Chapter 2: Process Calculations and Thermodynamics
Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase, multi-component, reacting and non-reacting systems. Use of tie components; recycle, bypass and purge calculations; Gibb’s phase rule and degree of freedom analysis.
First and Second laws of thermodynamics. Applications of first law to close and open systems. Second law and Entropy. Thermodynamic properties of pure substances: Equation of State and residual properties, properties of mixtures: partial molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients; phase equilibria: predicting VLE of systems; chemical reaction equilibrium.
Single-Phase Systems: Introductory concepts: Work, Heat, Reversible and Irreversible Processes; Equations of State and Generalized Correlations; Fluid Properties Estimation;Pure Component Phase Equilibria, Power and Refrigeration Cycles; Flow Processes;
Chapter 3: Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations
Fluid statics, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, shell-balances including differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance, Macroscopic friction factors, dimensional analysis and similitude, flow through pipeline systems, flow meters, pumps and compressors, elementary boundary layer theory, flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds, Turbulent flow: fluctuating velocity, universal velocity profile and pressure drop.
Particle size and shape, particle size distribution, size reduction and classification of solid particles; free and hindered settling; centrifuge and cyclones; thickening and classification, filtration, agitation and mixing; conveying of solids.
Basic Fluid Concepts: Dimensions and Units, Velocity and Stress Fields, Viscosity and surface tension, viscosity, Dimensional Analysis (Buckingham PI theorem), Types of flows, Methods of Analysis, Fluid Statics; Velocity potential, Boundary Layer Theory (Laminar), Viscous flows (past sphere), Integral Analysis: Mass, Energy (Bernouli), Momentum (Impinging jet, pitot tube, Orifice meter, rotameter, pipe flow: f vs Re charts); Chem Engg Equipment: Piping systems (K factors, networks), Flow past immersed objects (Packed beds, Fluidised beds, sedimentation, Centrifugal separation, filtration), Pumps, Agitation and Mixing, (Power consumption,mixing times, scale up), Particulate solids, characterisation, Other topics: Introduction to Turbulent Flows (Reynolds equations), Compressible flows, Compressors.
Chapter 4: Heat Transfer
Steady and unsteady heat conduction, convection and radiation, thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients, boiling, condensation and evaporation; types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations. Design of double pipe, shell and tube heat exchangers, and single and multiple effect evaporators. Heaters and Direct transfers-cooling towers
Chapter 5: Mass Transfer
Fick’s laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration and surface renewal theories; momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies; stage-wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies; HTU & NTU concepts; design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquid-liquid extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification and adsorption.
Distillation: batch distillation, continuous fractionation, calculations with multiple feeds and withdrawals; Special distillation techniques (azeotropic, extractive, etc.) steam and molecular distillation; Tray hydrodynamics and efficiencies; Liquid-Liquid extraction: Calculations with and without reflux for immiscible and partially miscible system; Gas absorption: packed tower design, effect of reaction; Simultaneous heat and mass transfer: Drying; Design of cooling towers;Adsorption: Types and nature of adsorption; Freundlich isotherm; Membrane processes: Gas separation processes; reverse osmosis processes.
Chapter 6: Chemical Reaction Engineering
Theories of reaction rates; kinetics of homogeneous reactions, interpretation of kinetic data, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors, non-ideal reactors; residence time distribution, single parameter model; non-isothermal reactors; kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions; diffusion effects in catalysis.
Chapter 7: Instrumentation and Process Control
Measurement of process variables; sensors, transducers and their dynamics, process modeling and linearization, transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems, systems with inverse response, process reaction curve, controller modes (P, PI, and PID); control valves; analysis of closed loop systems including stability, frequency response, controller tuning, cascade and feed forward control.
Chapter 8: Plant Design and Economics
Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost, cost indices, rate of return, payback period, discounted cash flow, optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipments such as compressors, heat exchangers, multistage contactors.
Process Design and Development: General Design Considerations; The Hierarchy of Chemical Process Design;Reactor networks in process flowsheets: Separation systems in process flowsheets: Multicomponent distillation for ideal and non-ideal systems, distillation column sequences, heat integration in distillation columns, Heat exchange networks synthesis and utilities: Energy targets, Introduction to optimization approaches to optimal design, role of simulations in process design, Design under uncertainty,and failure tolerance, Engineering around variations, Introduction to process integration
Chapter 9: Chemical Technology
Inorganic chemical industries (sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, chlor-alkali industry), fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP); natural products industries (Pulp and Paper, Sugar, Oil, and Fats); petroleum refining and petrochemicals; polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers).
CIVIL ENGINEERING SYLLABUS
Chapter 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima, Taylor and Maclaurin series; Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE): First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; Laplace transform and its application in solving linear ODEs; initial and boundary value problems.
Partial Differential Equation (PDE): Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of one-dimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Discrete Random variables: Poisson and Binomial distributions; Continuous random variables: normal and exponential distributions; Descriptive statistics – Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Hypothesis testing.
Numerical Methods: Accuracy and precision; error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; Least square approximation, Newton’s and Lagrange polynomials, numerical differentiation, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.
Chapter 2: Structural Engineering
Engineering Mechanics: System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Friction and its applications; Kinematics of point mass and rigid body; Centre of mass; Euler’s equations of motion; Impulse-momentum; Energy methods; Principles of virtual work.
Solid Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Theories of failures; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.
Structural Analysis: Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.
Construction Materials and Management: Construction Materials: Structural steel – composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete – constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties; Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Rate analysis and standard specifications; Cost estimation; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM.
Concrete Structures: Working stress, Limit state and Ultimate load design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete; Analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.
Steel Structures: Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beam-column
connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of beams and frames.
Chapter 3: Geotechnical Engineering
Soil Mechanics: Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – one dimensional flow, Darcy’s law; Seepage through soils – two-dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; One-dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohr’s circle, stress paths, effective and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.
Foundation Engineering: Sub-surface investigations – scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories, pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – types of piles, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin friction.
Chapter 4: Water Resources Engineering
Fluid Mechanics: Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth.
Hydraulics: Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics – Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump, uniform flow and gradually varied flow
Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s law.
Irrigation: Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration; Crop water requirements; Design of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets and escapes.
Chapter 5: Environmental Engineering
Water and Waste Water: Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.
Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.
Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).
Noise Pollution: Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.
Chapter 6: Transportation Engineering
Transportation Infrastructure: Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric design of highways – cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments; Geometric design of railway track; Airport runway length, taxiway and exit taxiway design.
Highway Pavements: Highway materials – desirable properties and quality control tests; Design of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible pavement using IRC: 37-2012; Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 58-2011; Distresses in concrete pavements. Traffic Engineering: Traffic studies on flow, speed, travel time – delay and O-D study, PCU, peak hour factor, parking study, accident study and analysis, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Control devices, signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections and channelization; Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban roads.
Chapter 7: Geomatics Engineering
Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps – scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.
Photogrammetry – scale, flying height; Remote sensing – basics, platform and sensors, visual image interpretation; Basics of Geographical information system (GIS) and Geographical Positioning system (GPS).
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING SYLLABUS
Chapter 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line integral, Surface integral, Volume integral, Stokes’s theorem, Gauss’s theorem, Green’s theorem.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s equation, Euler’s equation, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations, Method of separation of variables.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Taylor series, Laurent series, Residue theorem, Solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions, Poisson distribution, Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Correlation analysis, Regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, Single and Multi‐step methods for differential equations.
Transform Theory: Fourier Transform, Laplace Transform, z‐Transform.
Chapter 2: Electric Circuits
Network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, Transient response of dc and ac networks, Sinusoidal steady‐state analysis, Resonance, Passive filters, Ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Superposition theorem, Maximum power transfer theorem, Two‐port networks, Three phase circuits, Power and power factor in ac circuits.
Chapter 3: Electromagnetic Fields
Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot‐Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits,Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.
Chapter 4: Signals and Systems
Representation of continuous and discrete‐time signals, Shifting and scaling operations, Linear Time Invariant and Causal systems, Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals, Sampling theorem, Applications of Fourier Transform, Laplace Transform and z-Transform.
Chapter 5: Electrical Machines
Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase transformers: connections, parallel operation; Auto‐transformer, Electromechanical energy conversion principles, DC machines: separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics, starting and speed control of dc motors; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torque-speed characteristics, no-load and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Operating principle of single phase induction motors; Synchronous machines: cylindrical and salient pole machines, performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, starting of synchronous motor, characteristics; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines.
Chapter 6: Power Systems
Power generation concepts, ac and dc transmission concepts, Models and performance of transmission lines and cables, Series and shunt compensation, Electric field distribution and insulators, Distribution systems, Per‐unit quantities, Bus admittance matrix, Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson load flow methods, Voltage and Frequency control, Power factor correction, Symmetrical components, Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis, Principles of over‐current, differential and distance protection; Circuit breakers, System stability concepts, Equal area criterion.
Chapter 7: Control Systems
Mathematical modeling and representation of systems, Feedback principle, transfer function, Block diagrams and Signal flow graphs, Transient and Steady‐state analysis of linear time invariant systems, Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist criteria, Bode plots, Root loci, Stability analysis, Lag, Lead and Lead‐Lag compensators; P, PI and PID controllers; State space model, State transition matrix.
Chapter 8: Electrical and Electronic Measurements
Bridges and Potentiometers, Measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; Instrument transformers, Digital voltmeters and multimeters, Phase, Time and Frequency measurement; Oscilloscopes, Error analysis.
Chapter 9: Analog and Digital Electronics
Characteristics of diodes, BJT, MOSFET; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifiers; Amplifiers: Biasing, Equivalent circuit and Frequency response; Oscillators and Feedback amplifiers; Operational amplifiers: Characteristics and applications; Simple active filters, VCOs and Timers, Combinational and Sequential logic circuits, Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Schmitt trigger, Sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters, 8085Microprocessor: Architecture, Programming and Interfacing.
Chapter 10: Power Electronics
Characteristics of semiconductor power devices: Diode, Thyristor, Triac, GTO, MOSFET, IGBT; DC to DC conversion: Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters; Single and three phase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers, Line commutated thyristor based converters, Bidirectional ac to dc voltage source converters, Issues of line current harmonics, Power factor, Distortion factor of ac to dc converters, Single phase and three phase inverters, Sinusoidal pulse width modulation.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND SYSTEMS SYLLABUS
Chapter1: Engineering Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics: Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring. Combinatorics: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.
Linear Algebra: Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, LU decomposition.
Calculus: Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration.
Probability: Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.
Chapter 2: Digital Logic
Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).
Chapter 3: Computer Organization and Architecture
Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data‐path and control unit. Instruction pipelining. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).
Chapter 4: Programming and Data Structures
Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.
Chapter 5: Algorithms
Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer. Graph search, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.
Chapter 6: Theory of Computation
Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down automata. Regular and contex-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.
Chapter 7: Compiler Design
Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation.
Chapter 8: Operating System
Processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.
Chapter 9: Databases
ER‐model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.
Chapter 10: Computer Networks
Concept of layering. LAN technologies (Ethernet). Flow and error control techniques, switching. IPv4/IPv6, routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state). TCP/UDP and sockets, congestion control. Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP). Basics of Wi-Fi. Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SYLLABUS
Chapter 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, indeterminate forms; evaluation of definite and improper integrals; double and triple integrals; partial derivatives, total derivative, Taylor series (in one and two variables), maxima and minima, Fourier series; gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, applications of Gauss, Stokes and Green’s theorems.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability, sampling theorems, conditional probability; mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions.
Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.
Chapter 2: Applied Mechanics and Design
Engineering Mechanics: Free-body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion; impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations, collisions.
Mechanics of Materials: Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson’s ratio; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; energy methods; thermal stresses; strain gauges and rosettes; testing of materials with universal testing machine; testing of hardness and impact strength.
Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of linkages; cams; gears and gear trains; flywheels and governors; balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses; gyroscope.
Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems, effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance; critical speeds of shafts.
Machine Design: Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints; shafts, gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches, springs.
Chapter 3: Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences
Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy, forces on submerged bodies, stability of floating bodies; control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; dimensional analysis; viscous flow of incompressible fluids, boundary layer, elementary turbulent flow, flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends and fittings.
Heat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept and electrical analogy, heat transfer through fins; unsteady heat conduction, lumped parameter system, Heisler’s charts; thermal boundary layer, dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes, effect of turbulence; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods; radiative heat transfer, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law, black and grey surfaces, view factors, radiation network analysis.
Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substances, behaviour of ideal and real gases; zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics, calculation of work and heat in various processes; second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamic property charts and tables, availability and irreversibility; thermodynamic relations.
Applications: Power Engineering: Air and gas compressors; vapour and gas power cycles, concepts of regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: Air-standard Otto, Diesel and dual cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour and gas refrigeration and heat pump cycles; properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines.
Chapter 4: Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering
Engineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials, phase diagrams, heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.
Casting, Forming and Joining Processes: Different types of castings, design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design. Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy. Principles of welding, brazing, soldering and adhesive bonding.
Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Mechanics of machining; basic machine tools; single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of non-traditional machining processes; principles of work holding, design of jigs and fixtures.
Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; gauge design; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools.
Production Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning.
Inventory Control: Deterministic models; safety stock inventory control systems.
Operations Research: Linear programming, simplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.
Additional Topics for inclusion: Physics- Sound-Latices-Ultrasonic Flaw Detectors-XRay & Radiography- Laser & Fibre Optics
Chemistry- Adsorption- Chromatography- Chemical Kinetics- Electrochemistry- Water Chemistry- Fuels & Combustion
Materials Science- Fracture- Magnetic & Dielectric Materials- Conductor & Semi conductor Materials- Cermaics & Super Conductor Materials
Civil Engineering- Fluid Static & Dynamics- Boundary Layer- Basics of Foundation & Super Structures- Environmental & Polution Control
Electrical & Electronics Engineering- Ohm’s Law- Kirchoff’s Law- AC Circuits- DC Machines- Transformers- Synchronous Machines- Basic Instruments
METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING SYLLABUS
Chapter 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line, Surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs –Laplace, one dimensional heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear (Bisection, Secant, Newton-Raphson methods) algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.
Chapter 2: Thermodynamics and Rate Processes
Laws of thermodynamics, activity, equilibrium constant, applications to metallurgical systems, solutions, phase equilibria, Ellingham and phase stability diagrams, thermodynamics of surfaces, interfaces and defects, adsorption and segregation; basic kinetic laws, order of reactions, rate constants and rate limiting steps; principles of electro chemistry- single electrode potential, electrochemical cells and polarizations, aqueous corrosion and protection of metals, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion, selective leaching, oxidation and high temperature corrosion – characterization and control; heat transfer – conduction, convection and heat transfer coefficient relations, radiation, mass transfer – diffusion and Fick’s laws, mass transfer coefficients; momentum transfer – concepts of viscosity, shell balances, Bernoulli’s equation, friction factors.
Chapter 3: Extractive Metallurgy
Minerals of economic importance, comminution techniques, size classification, flotation, gravity and other methods of mineral processing; agglomeration, pyro-, hydro-, and electro-metallurgical processes; material and energy balances; principles and processes for the extraction of non-ferrous metals – aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, magnesium, nickel, titanium and other rare metals; iron and steel making – principles, role structure and properties of slags, metallurgical coke, blast furnace, direct reduction processes, primary and secondary steel making, ladle metallurgy operations including deoxidation, desulphurization, sulphide shape control, inert gas rinsing and vacuum reactors; secondary refining processes including AOD, VAD, VOD, VAR and ESR; ingot and continuous casting; stainless steel making, furnaces and refractories.
Chapter 4: Physical Metallurgy
Crystal structure and bonding characteristics of metals, alloys, ceramics and polymers, structure of surfaces and interfaces, nano-crystalline and amorphous structures; solid solutions; solidification; phase transformation and binary phase diagrams; principles of heat treatment of steels, cast iron and aluminium alloys; surface treatments; recovery, recrystallization and grain growth; structure and properties of industrially important ferrous and non-ferrous alloys; elements of X-ray and electron diffraction; principles of optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy; industrial ceramics, polymers and composites; introduction to electronic basis of thermal, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of materials; introduction to electronic and opto-electronic materials.
Chapter 5: Mechanical Metallurgy
Elasticity, yield criteria and plasticity; defects in crystals; elements of dislocation theory – types of dislocations, slip and twinning, source and multiplication of dislocations, stress fields around dislocations, partial dislocations, dislocation interactions and reactions; strengthening mechanisms; tensile, fatigue and creep behaviour; superplasticity; fracture – Griffith theory, basic concepts of linear elastic and elastoplastic fracture mechanics, ductile to brittle transition, fracture toughness; failure analysis; mechanical testing – tension, compression, torsion, hardness, impact, creep, fatigue, fracture toughness and formability.
Chapter 6: Manufacturing Processes
Metal casting – patterns and moulds including mould design involving feeding, gating and risering, melting, casting practices in sand casting, permanent mould casting, investment casting and shell moulding, casting defects and repair; Hot, warm and cold working of metals; Metal forming – fundamentals of metal forming processes of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing and sheet metal forming, defects in forming; Metal joining – soldering, brazing and welding, common welding processes of shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding and submerged arc welding; Welding metallurgy, problems associated with welding of steels and aluminium alloys, defects in welded joints; Powder metallurgy – production of powders, compaction and sintering; NDT using dye-penetrant, ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle methods.
CHAPTER-1 PRINCIPLES OF SAFETY MANAGEMENT
UNIT I CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES
History of Safety movement –Evolution of modern safety concept- general concepts of management – planning for safety for optimization of productivity -productivity, quality and safety-line and staff functions for safety-budgeting for safety-safety policy.
Incident Recall Technique (IRT), disaster control, job safety analysis, safety survey, safety inspection, safety sampling, evaluation of performance of supervisors on safety.
UNIT II SAFETY AUDIT – INTRODUCTION
Components of safety audit, types of audit, audit methodology, non conformity reporting (NCR), audit checklist and report – review of inspection, remarks by government agencies, consultants, experts – perusal of accident and safety records, formats – implementation of audit indication – liaison with departments to ensure co-ordination – check list – identification of unsafe acts of workers and unsafe conditions in the shop floor.
UNIT III ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION AND REPORTING
Concept of an accident, reportable and non reportable accidents, reporting to statutory authorities – principles of accident prevention – accident investigation and analysis – records for accidents, departmental accident reports, documentation of accidents – unsafe act and condition – domino sequence – supervisory role – role of safety committee –cost of accident.
UNIT IV SAFETY PERFORMANCE MONITORING
ANSI (Z16.1) Recommended practices for compiling and measuring work injury experience – permanent total disabilities, permanent partial disabilities, temporary total disabilities – Calculation of accident indices, frequency rate, severity rate, frequency severity incidence, incident rate, accident rate, safety “t” score, safety activity rate – problems.
UNIT V SAFETY EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Importance of training-identification of training needs-training methods – programmes, seminars, conferences, competitions – method of promoting safe practice – motivation – communication – role of government agencies and private consulting agencies in safety training – creating awareness, awards, celebrations, safety posters, safety displays, safety pledge, safety incentive scheme, safety campaign – Domestic Safety and Training.
CHAPTER-2 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
UNIT I PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Noise, compensation aspects, noise exposure regulation, properties of sound, occupational damage, risk factors, sound measuring instruments, octave band analyzer, noise networks, noise surveys, noise control program, industrial audiometry, hearing conservation programs- vibration, types, effects, instruments, surveying procedure, permissible exposure limit.
Ionizing radiation, types, effects, monitoring instruments, control programs, OSHA standard- non-ionizing radiations, effects, types, radar hazards, microwaves and radio-waves, lasers, TLV- cold environments, hypothermia, wind chill index, control measures- hot environments, thermal comfort, heat stress indices, acclimatization, estimation and control
UNIT II CHEMICAL HAZARDS
Recognition of chemical hazards-dust, fumes, mist, vapour, fog, gases, types, concentration, Exposure vs. dose, TLV – Methods of Evaluation, process or operation description, Field Survey, Sampling methodology, Industrial Hygiene calculations, Comparison with OSHAS Standard.
Air Sampling instruments, Types, Measurement Procedures, Instruments Procedures, Gas and Vapour monitors, dust sample collection devices, personal sampling
Methods of Control – Engineering Control, Design maintenance considerations, design specifications – General Control Methods – training and education
UNIT III BIOLOGICAL AND ERGONOMICAL HAZARDS
Classification of Biohazardous agents – examples, bacterial agents, rickettsial and chlamydial agents, viral agents, fungal, parasitic agents, infectious diseases – Biohazard control program, employee health program-laboratory safety program-animal care and handling-biological safety cabinets – building design.
Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders –carpal tunnel syndrome CTS- Tendon pain-disorders of the neck- back injuries.
UNIT IV OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND TOXICOLOGY
Concept and spectrum of health – functional units and activities of occupational health services, pre-employment and post-employment medical examinations – occupational related diseases, levels of prevention of diseases, notifiable occupational diseases such as silicosis, asbestosis, pneumoconiosis, siderosis, anthracosis, aluminosis and anthrax, lead-nickel, chromium and manganese toxicity, gas poisoning (such as CO, ammonia, coal and dust etc) their effects and prevention – cardio pulmonary resuscitation, audiometric tests, eye tests, vital function tests.
Industrial toxicology, local, systemic and chronic effects, temporary and cumulative effects, carcinogens entry into human systems
UNIT V OCCUPATIONAL PHYSIOLOGY
Man as a system component – allocation of functions – efficiency – occupational work capacity – aerobic and anaerobic work – evaluation of physiological requirements of jobs – parameters of measurements – categorization of job heaviness – work organization – stress – strain – fatigue – rest pauses – shift work – personal hygiene
CHAPTER-3 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT ACTS
UNIT I FACTORIES ACT – 1948
Statutory authorities – inspecting staff, health, safety, provisions relating to hazardous processes, welfare, working hours, employment of young persons – special provisions – penalties and procedures-Tamilnadu Factories Rules 1950 under Safety and health chapters of Factories Act 1948
UNIT II ENVIRONMENT ACT – 1986
General powers of the central government, prevention, control and abatement of environmental pollution-Biomedical waste (Management and handling Rules, 1989-The noise pollution (Regulation and control) Rules, 2000-The Batteries (Management and Handling Rules) 2001- No Objection certificate from statutory authorities like pollution control board.
Air Act 1981 and Water Act 1974: Central and state boards for the prevention and control of air pollution-powers and functions of boards – prevention and control of air pollution and water pollution – fund – accounts and audit, penalties and procedures.
UNIT III MANUFACTURE, STORAGE AND IMPORT OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL RULES 1989
Definitions – duties of authorities – responsibilities of occupier – notification of major accidents – information to be furnished – preparation of offsite and onsite plans – list of hazardous and toxic chemicals – safety reports – safety data sheets.
UNIT IV OTHER ACTS AND RULES 20
Indian Boiler Act 1923, static and mobile pressure vessel rules (SMPV), motor vehicle rules, mines act 1952, workman compensation act, rules – electricity act and rules – hazardous wastes (management and handling) rules, 1989, with amendments in 2000- the building and other construction workers act 1996., Petroleum rules, Gas cyclinder rules-Explosives Act 1983-Pesticides Act
UNIT V INTERNATIONAL ACTS AND STANDARDS
Occupational Safety and Health act of USA (The Williames – Steiger Act of 1970) – Health and safety work act (HASAWA 1974, UK) – OSHAS 18000 – ISO 14000 – American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
CHAPTER-4 FIRE ENGINEERING AND EXPLOSION CONTROL
UNIT I PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF FIRE
Fire properties of solid, liquid and gases – fire spread – toxicity of products of combustion – theory of combustion and explosion – vapour clouds – flash fire – jet fires – pool fires – unconfined vapour cloud explosion, shock waves – auto-ignition – boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion – case studies – Flixborough, Mexico disaster, Pasedena Texas, Piper Alpha, Peterborough and Bombay Victoria dock ship explosions.
UNIT II FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION
Sources of ignition – fire triangle – principles of fire extinguishing – active and passive fire protection systems – various classes of fires – A, B, C, D, E – types of fire extinguishers – fire stoppers – hydrant pipes – hoses – monitors – fire watchers – lay out of stand pipes – fire station-fire alarms and sirens – maintenance of fire trucks – foam generators – escape from fire rescue operations – fire drills – notice-first aid for burns.
UNIT III INDUSTRIAL FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Sprinkler-hydrants-stand pipes – special fire suppression systems like deluge and emulsifier, selection criteria of the above installations, reliability, maintenance, evaluation and standards – alarm and detection systems. Other suppression systems – CO2 system, foam system, dry chemical powder (DCP) system, halon system – need for halon replacement – smoke venting. Portable extinguishers – flammable liquids – tank farms – indices of inflammability-fire fighting systems.
UNIT IV BUILDING FIRE SAFETY
Objectives of fire safe building design, Fire load, fire resistant material and fire testing – structural fire protection – structural integrity – concept of egress design – exists – width calculations – fire certificates – fire safety requirements for high rise buildings – snookers.
UNIT V EXPLOSION PROTECTING SYSTEMS
Principles of explosion-detonation and blast waves-explosion parameters – Explosion Protection, Containment, Flame Arrestors, isolation, suppression, venting, explosion relief of large enclosure-explosion venting-inert gases, plant for generation of inert gas-rupture disc in process vessels and lines explosion, suppression system based on carbon dioxide (CO2) and halons-hazards in LPG, ammonia (NH3), sulphur dioxide (SO3), chlorine (CL2) etc.
CHAPTER-5 COMPUTER AIDED HAZARD ANALYSIS
UNIT I HAZARD, RISK ISSUES AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT
Introduction, hazard, hazard monitoring-risk issue, group or societal risk, individual risk, voluntary and involuntary risk, social benefits Vs technological risk, approaches for establishing risk acceptance levels, Risk estimation.
Hazard assessment, procedure, methodology; safety audit, checklist analysis, what-if analysis, safety review, preliminary hazard analysis(PHA), human error analysis, hazard operability studies(HAZOP),safety warning systems.
UNIT II COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUMENTS
Applications of Advanced Equipments and Instruments, Thermo Calorimetry, Differential Scanning Calorimeter(DSC), Thermo Gravimetric Analyser(TGA), Accelerated Rate Calorimeter(ARC), Reactive Calorimeter(RC), Reaction System Screening Tool(RSST) – Principles of operations, Controlling parameters, Applications, advantages.
Explosive Testing, Deflagration Test, Detonation Test, Ignition Test, Minimum ignition energy Test, Sensitiveness Test, Impact Sensitiveness Test(BAM) and Friction Sensitiveness Test (BAM), Shock Sensitiveness Test, Card Gap Test.
UNIT III RISK ANALYSIS QUANTIFICATION AND SOFTWARES
Fault Tree Analysis and Event Tree Analysis, Logic symbols, methodology, minimal cut set ranking – fire explosion and toxicity index(FETI), various indices – Hazard analysis(HAZAN)- Failure Mode and Effect Analysis(FMEA)- Basic concepts of Reliability- Software on Risk analysis, CISCON, FETI, HAMGARS modules on Heat radiation, Pool fire, Jet, Explosion. Reliability softwares on FMEA for mechanical and electrical systems.
UNIT IV CONSEQUENCES ANALYSIS
Logics of consequences analysis- Estimation- Hazard identification based on the properties of chemicals- Chemical inventory analysis- identification of hazardous processes- Estimation of source term, Gas or vapour release, liquid release, two phase release- Heat radiation effects, BLEVE, Pool fires and Jet fire- Gas/vapour dispersion- Explosion, UVCE and Flash fire, Explosion effects and confined explosion- Toxic effects- Plotting the damage distances on plot plant/layout.
UNIT V CREDIBILITY OF RISK ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES
Past accident analysis as information sources for Hazard analysis and consequences analysis of chemical accident, Mexico disaster, Flixborough, Bhopal, Seveso, Pasadena, Feyzin disaster(1966), Port Hudson disaster- convey report, hazard assessment of non-nuclear installation- Rijnmond report, risk analysis of size potentially Hazardous Industrial objects- Rasmussen masses report, Reactor safety study of Nuclear power plant
CHAPTER-6 ELECTRICAL SAFETY
UNIT I CONCEPTS AND STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS
Introduction – electrostatics, electro magnetism, stored energy, energy radiation and electromagnetic interference – Working principles of electrical equipment-Indian electricity act and rules-statutory requirements from electrical inspectorate-international standards on electrical safety – first aid-cardio pulmonary resuscitation(CPR).
UNIT II ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
Primary and secondary hazards-shocks, burns, scalds, falls-human safety in the use of electricity. Energy leakage-clearances and insulation-classes of insulation-voltage classifications-excess energy-current surges-Safety in handling of war equipments-over current and short circuit current-heating effects of current-electromagnetic forces-corona effect-static electricity –definition, sources, hazardous conditions, control, electrical causes of fire and explosion-ionization, spark and arc-ignition energy-national electrical safety code ANSI.
Lightning, hazards, lightning arrestor, installation – earthing, specifications, earth resistance, earth pit maintenance.
UNIT III PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Fuse, circuit breakers and overload relays – protection against over voltage and under voltage – safe limits of amperage – voltage –safe distance from lines-capacity and protection of conductor-joints-and connections, overload and short circuit protection-no load protection-earth fault protection.
FRLS insulation-insulation and continuity test-system grounding-equipment grounding-earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB)-cable wires-maintenance of ground-ground fault circuit interrupter-use of low voltage-electrical guards-Personal protective equipment – safety in handling hand held electrical appliances tools and medical equipments.
UNIT IV SELECTION, INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
Role of environment in selection-safety aspects in application – protection and interlock-self diagnostic features and fail safe concepts-lock out and work permit system-discharge rod and earthing devices-safety in the use of portable tools-cabling and cable joints-preventive maintenance.
UNIT V HAZARDOUS ZONE
Classification of hazardous zones-intrinsically safe and explosion proof electrical apparatus-increase safe equipment-their selection for different zones-temperature classification-grouping of gases-use of barriers and isolators-equipment certifying agencies.
CHAPTER-7 SAFETY IN CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
UNIT I SAFETY IN PROCESS DESIGN AND PRESSURE SYSTEM DESIGN
Design process, conceptual design and detail design, assessment, inherently safer design- chemical reactor , types, batch reactors, reaction hazard evaluation, assessment, reactor safety, operating conditions, unit operations and equipments, utilities.
Pressure system, pressure vessel design, standards and codes- pipe works and valves- heat exchangers- process machinery- over pressure protection, pressure relief devices and design, fire relief, vacuum and thermal relief, special situations, disposal- flare and vent systems- failures in pressure system.
UNIT II PLANT COMMISSIONING AND INSPECTION
Commissioning phases and organization, pre-commissioning documents, process commissioning, commissioning problems, post commissioning documentation
Plant inspection, pressure vessel, pressure piping system, non destructive testing, pressure testing, leak testing and monitoring- plant monitoring, performance monitoring, condition, vibration, corrosion, acoustic emission-pipe line inspection.
UNIT III PLANT OPERATIONS
Operating discipline, operating procedure and inspection, format, emergency procedures- hand over and permit system- start up and shut down operation, refinery units- operation of fired heaters, driers, storage- operating activities and hazards- trip systems- exposure of personnel
UNIT IV PLANT MAINTENANCE, MODIFICATION AND EMERGENCY PLANNING
Management of maintenance, hazards- preparation for maintenance, isolation, purging, cleaning, confined spaces, permit system- maintenance equipment- hot works- tank cleaning, repair and demolition- online repairs- maintenance of protective devices- modification of plant, problems- controls of modifications.
Emergency planning, disaster planning, onsite emergency- offsite emergency, APELL
UNIT V STORAGES
General consideration, petroleum product storages, storage tanks and vessel- storages layout- segregation, separating distance, secondary containment- venting and relief, atmospheric vent, pressure, vacuum valves, flame arrestors, fire relief- fire prevention and protection- LPG storages, pressure storages, layout, instrumentation, vapourizer, refrigerated storages- LNG storages, hydrogen storages, toxic storages, chlorine storages, ammonia storages, other chemical storages- underground storages- loading and unloading facilities- drum and cylinder storage- ware house, storage hazard assessment of LPG and LNG
CHAPTER-8 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY LABORATORY
NOISE LEVEL MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS
Measurement of sound pressure level in dB for Impact, continuous and intermittent sources at various networks, peak and average values.
Explosive materials like barium nitrate, gun powder, white powder, amorces composition etc.
Explosive materials like gun powder, white powder, amerce composition etc.
Burst strength test of packaging materials like paper bags, corrugated cartoons, wood etc.
Auto ignition temperature test.
EXHAUST GAS MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS
Measurement of Sox, Nox, Cox, hydrocarbons.
ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETER MEASUREMENT
Dry Bulb Temperature, Wet Bulb Temperature, Determination of relative humidity, wind flow and effective corrective effective.
Particle size Measurement
Air sampling analysis
TRAINING IN USAGE AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT
Personal protective equipment:
Respiratory and non-respiratory-demonstration-self contained breathing apparatus. Safety helmet, belt, hand gloves, goggles, safety shoe, gum boots, ankle shoes, face shield, nose mask, ear plug, ear muff, anti static and conducting plastics/rubber materials, apron and leg guard.
Fire extinguishers and its operations
Carbon dioxide (Co2)
Dry chemical powder and
Currently amendment fire safety systems
Static charge testing on plastic, rubber, ferrous and non-ferrous materials.
Illumination testing – by lux meter and photo meter.
Insulation resistance for motors and cables
Estimation of earth resistance
Earth continuity test
Sensitivity test for MCB, ELCB, RCCB, MCCB 20
Dispersion modeling of various highly dangerous chemicals using ALOHA software
Road safety signals and symbols
- Noise level meter : 1 No
- Friction tester : 1 No
- Impact tester : 1 No
- Exhaust gas analyzer: 1 No
- High volume sampler : 1 No
- PPE Set : 1 No
- Fire extinguisher set : 1 No
- Static charge tester : 1 No
- First aid kid : 1 No
- Lock out/Tag out : 1 No
- Software: ALOHA, CAMEO
CHAPTER-9 RELIABILITY ENGINEERING
UNIT I RELIABILITY CONCEPT
Reliability function – failure rate – mean time between failures (MTBF) – mean time to failure (MTTF) – A priori and a posteriori concept – mortality curve – useful life – availability – maintainability – system effectiveness.
UNIT II FAILURE DATA ANALYSIS
Time to failure distributions – Exponential, normal, Gamma, Weibull, ranking of data – probability plotting techniques – Hazard plotting.
UNIT III RELIABILITY PREDICTION MODELS
Series and parallel systems – RBD approach – Standby systems – m/n configuration – Application of Bayes’ theorem – cut and tie set method – Markov analysis – Fault Tree Analysis – limitations.
UNIT IV RELIABILITY MANAGEMENT
Reliability testing – Reliability growth monitoring – Non-parametric methods – Reliability and life cycle costs – Reliability allocation – Replacement model.
UNIT V RISK ASSESSMENT
Definition and measurement of risk – risk analysis techniques – risk reduction resources – industrial safety and risk assessment.
CHAPTER-10 PLANT LAYOUT AND MATERIALS HANDLING
UNIT I PLANT LOCATION
Selection of plant locations, territorial parameters, considerations of land, water, electricity, location for waste treatment and disposal, further expansions
Safe location of chemical storages, LPG, LNG, CNG, acetylene, ammonia, chlorine, explosives and propellants
UNIT II PLANT LAYOUT
Safe layout, equipment layout, safety system, fire hydrant locations, fire service rooms, facilities for safe effluent disposal and treatment tanks, site considerations, approach roads, plant railway lines, security towers.
Safe layout for process industries, engineering industry, construction sites, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, fertilizers, refineries, food processing, nuclear power stations, thermal power stations, metal powders manufacturing, fireworks and match works 23
UNIT III WORKING CONDITIONS
Principles of good ventilation, purpose, physiological and comfort level types, local and exhaust ventilation, hood and duct design, air conditioning, ventilation standards, application.
Purpose of lighting, types, advantages of good illumination, glare and its effect, lighting requirements for various work, standards- House keeping, principles of 5S.
UNIT IV MANUAL MATERIAL HANDLING AND LIFTING TACKLES
Preventing common injuries, lifting by hand, team lifting and carrying, handling specific shape machines and other heavy objects – accessories for manual handling, hand tools, jacks, hand trucks, dollies and wheel barrows – storage of specific materials – problems with hazardous materials, liquids, solids – storage and handling of cryogenic liquids – shipping and receiving, stock picking, dock boards, machine and tools, steel strapping and sacking, glass and nails, pitch and glue, boxes and cartons and car loading – personal protection – ergonomic considerations
Fiber rope, types, strength and working load inspection, rope in use, rope in storage – wire rope, construction, design factors, deterioration causes, sheaves and drums, lubrication, overloading, rope fitting, inspection and replacement – slings, types, method of attachment, rated capacities, alloy chain slings, hooks and attachment, inspection
UNIT V MECHANICAL MATERIAL HANDLING
Hoisting apparatus, types – cranes, types, design and construction, guards and limit devices, signals, operating rules, maintenance safety rules, inspection and inspection checklist – conveyors, precautions, types, applications.
Powered industrial trucks, requirements, operating principles, operators selection and training and performance test, inspection and maintenance, electric trucks, gasoline operated trucks, LPG trucks – power elevators, types of drives, hoist way and machine room emergency procedure, requirements for the handicapped, types- Escalator, safety devices and brakes, moving walks – man lifts, construction, brakes, inspection.
CHAPTER-11 WORK STUDY AND ERGONOMICS
UNIT I WORK STUDY
Study of operations – work content – work procedure – breakdown – human factors – safety and method study – methods and movements at the workplace – substitution with latest devices – robotic concepts – applications in hazardous workplaces – productivity, quality and safety (PQS).
UNIT II ERGONOMICS
Definition – applications of ergonomic principles in the shop floor – work benches – seating arrangements – layout of electrical panels- switch gears – principles of motion economy – location of controls – display locations – machine foundations – work platforms, fatigue, physical and mental strain – incidents of accident – physiology of workers.
UNIT III PERSONAL PROTECTION
Concepts of personal protective equipment – types – selection of PPE – invisible protective barriers – procurement, storage, inspection and testing – quality – standards – ergonomic considerations in personal protective equipment design.
UNIT IV PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN
Process design – equipment – instrument – selection – concept modules – various machine tools – in-built safety – machine layout-machine guarding-safety devices and methods – selection, inspection, maintenance and safe usage – statutory provisions, operator training and supervision – hazards and prevention.
UNIT V MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS
Job and personal risk factors – standards-selection and training-body size and posture-body dimension (static/dynamic) – adjustment range – penalties – guide lines for safe design and postures – evaluation and methods of reducing posture strain.
Man-machine interface-controls -types of control-identification and selection-types of displays-compatibility and stereotypes of important operations-fatigue and vigilance-measurement characteristics and strategies for enhanced performance.
CHAPTER-12 HUMAN FACTORS IN ENGINEERING
UNIT I ERGONOMICS AND ANATOMY
Introduction to ergonomics: The focus of ergonomics, ergonomics and its areas of application in the work system, a brief history of ergonomics, attempts to humanize work, modern ergonomics, future directions for ergonomics
Anatomy, Posture and Body Mechanics: Some basic body mechanics, anatomy of the sprine and pelvis related to posture, posture stability and posture adaptation, low back pain, risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace, behavioural aspects of posture, effectiveness and cost effectiveness, research directions
UNIT II HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Individual differences, Factors contributing to personality, Fitting the man to the job, Influence of difference on safety, Method of measuring characteristics, Accident Proneness. Motivation, Complexity of Motivation, Job satisfaction. Management theories of motivation, Job enrichment theory. Frustration and Conflicts, Reaction to frustration, Emotion and Frustration. Attitudes-Determination of attitudes, Changing attitudes Learning, Principles of Learning, Forgetting, Motivational requirements. 27
UNIT III ANTHROPOMETRY AND WORK DESIGN FOR STANDING AND SEATED WORKS
Designing for a population of users, percentile, sources of human variability, anthropometry and its uses in ergonomics, principals of applied anthropometry in ergonomics, application of anthropometry in design, design for everyone, anthropometry and personal space, effectiveness and cost effectiveness Fundamental aspects of standing and sitting, an ergonomics approach to work station design, design for standing workers, design for seated workers, work surface design, visual display units, guidelines for design of static work, effectiveness and cost effectiveness, research directions
UNIT IV MAN – MACHINE SYSTEM AND REPETITIVE WORKS AND MANUAL HANDLING TASK
Applications of human factors engineering, man as a sensor, man as information processor, man as controller – Man vs Machine.
Ergonomics interventions in Repetitive works, handle design, key board design- measures for preventing in work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), reduction and controlling, training Anatomy and biomechanics of manual handling, prevention of manual handling injuries in the work place, design of manual handling tasks, carrying, postural stability
UNIT V HUMAN SKILL AND PERFORMANCE AND DISPLAY, CONTROLS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
A general information-processing model of the users, cognitive system, problem solving, effectiveness.
Principles for the design of visual displays- auditory displays- design of controls- combining displays and controls- virtual (synthetic) environments, research issues.
CHAPTER-13 SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION
UNIT I ACCIDENTS CAUSES AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Problems impeding safety in construction industry- causes of fatal accidents, types and causes of accidents related to various construction activities, human factors associated with these accident – construction regulations, contractual clauses – Pre contract activates, preconstruction meeting – design aids for safe construction – permits to work – quality assurance in construction – compensation – Recording of accidents and safety measures – Education and training
UNIT II HAZARDS OF CONSTRUCTION AND PREVENTION
Excavations, basement and wide excavation, trenches, shafts – scaffolding , types, causes of accidents, scaffold inspection checklist – false work – erection of structural frame work, dismantling – tunneling – blasting, pre blast and post blast inspection – confined spaces – working on contaminated sites – work over water – road works – power plant constructions – construction of high rise buildings.
UNIT III WORKING AT HEIGHTS
Fall protection in construction OSHA 3146 – OSHA requirement for working at heights, Safe access and egress – safe use of ladders- Scaffoldings , requirement for safe work platforms, stairways, gangways and ramps – fall prevention and fall protection , safety belts, safety nets, fall arrestors, controlled access zones, safety monitoring systems – working on fragile roofs, work permit systems, height pass – accident case studies.
UNIT IV CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY
Selection, operation, inspection and testing of hoisting cranes, mobile cranes, tower cranes, crane inspection checklist – builder’s hoist, winches, chain pulley blocks – use of conveyors – concrete mixers, concrete vibrators – safety in earth moving equipment, excavators, dozers, loaders, dumpers, motor grader, concrete pumps, welding machines, use of portable electrical tools, drills, grinding tools, manual handling scaffolding, hoisting cranes – use of conveyors and mobile cranes – manual handling.
UNIT V SAFETY IN DEMOLITION WORK
Safety in demolition work, manual, mechanical, using explosive – keys to safe demolition, pre survey inspection, method statement, site supervision, safe clearance zone, health hazards from demolition – Indian standard – trusses, girders and beams – first aid – fire hazards and preventing methods – interesting experiences at the construction site against the fire accidents.
CHAPTER-14 SAFETY IN ENGINEERING INDUSTRY
UNIT I SAFETY IN METAL WORKING MACHINERY AND WOOD WORKING MACHINES
General safety rules, principles, maintenance, Inspections of turning machines, boring machines, milling machine, planning machine and grinding machines, CNC machines,
Wood working machinery, types, safety principles, electrical guards, work area, material handling, inspection, standards and codes- saws, types, hazards.
UNIT II PRINCIPLES OF MACHINE GUARDING
Guarding during maintenance, Zero Mechanical State (ZMS), Definition, Policy for ZMS – guarding of hazards – point of operation protective devices, machine guarding, types, fixed guard, interlock guard, automatic guard, trip guard, electron eye, positional control guard, fixed guard fencing- guard construction- guard opening.
Selection and suitability: lathe-drilling-boring-milling-grinding-shaping-sawing-shearing-presses-forge hammer-flywheels-shafts-couplings-gears-sprockets wheels and chains-pulleys and belts-authorized entry to hazardous installations-benefits of good guarding systems. 36
UNIT III SAFETY IN WELDING AND GAS CUTTING
Gas welding and oxygen cutting, resistances welding, arc welding and cutting, common hazards, personal protective equipment, training, safety precautions in brazing, soldering and metalizing – explosive welding, selection, care and maintenance of the associated equipment and instruments – safety in generation, distribution and handling of industrial gases-colour coding – flashback arrestor – leak detection-pipe line safety-storage and handling of gas cylinders.
UNIT IV SAFETY IN COLD FARMING AND HOT WORKING OF METALS
Cold working, power presses, point of operation safe guarding, auxiliary mechanisms, feeding and cutting mechanism, hand or foot-operated presses, power press electric controls, power press set up and die removal, inspection and maintenance-metal sheers-press brakes.
Hot working safety in forging, hot rolling mill operation, safe guards in hot rolling mills – hot bending of pipes, hazards and control measures.
Safety in gas furnace operation, cupola, crucibles, ovens, foundry health hazards, work environment, material handling in foundries, foundry production cleaning and finishing foundry processes.
UNIT V SAFETY IN FINISHING, INSPECTION AND TESTING
Heat treatment operations, electro plating, paint shops, sand and shot blasting, safety in inspection and testing, dynamic balancing, hydro testing, valves, boiler drums and headers, pressure vessels, air leak test, steam testing, safety in radiography, personal monitoring devices, radiation hazards, engineering and administrative controls, Indian Boilers Regulation.
Health and welfare measures in engineering industry-pollution control in engineering industry-industrial waste disposal.
CHAPTER-15 QUALITY ENGINEERING IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS.
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY ENGINEERING AND LOSS FUNCTION
Quality value and engineering- overall quality system-quality engineering in product design – quality engineering in design of production processes – quality engineering in production – quality engineering in service. Loss function Derivation – use-loss function for products/system- justification of improvements-loss function and inspection- quality evaluations and tolerances-N type, S type, L type
UNIT II ON-LINE QUALITY CONTROL
On-line feedback quality control variable characteristics-control with measurement interval- one unit, multiple units-control systems for lot and batch production. On-line process parameter control variable characteristics- process parameter tolerances- feedback control systems-measurement error and process control parameters.
UNIT III ON-LINE QUALITY CONTROL ATTRIBUTES AND METHODS FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS
Checking intervals- frequency of process diagnosis. Production process improvement method- process diagnosis improvement method- process adjustment and recovery improvement methods.
UNIT IV QUALITY ENGINEERING AND TPM
Preventive maintenance schedules- PM schedules for functional characteristics- PM schedules for large scale systems. Quality tools–fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis. ISO quality systems.
UNIT V SIX SIGMA AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION
Introduction- definition-methodology- impact of implementation of six sigma-DMAIC method-roles and responsibilities –leaders, champion, black belt, green belts. Do’s and dont’s – readiness of organization – planning-management role- six sigma tools – sustaining six sigma.
CHAPTER-16 DISASTER MANAGEMENT
UNIT I : Philosophy of Disaster management-Introduction to Disaster mitigation-Hydrological, Coastal and Marine Disasters-Atmospheric disasters-Geological, meteorological phenomena-Mass Movement and Land Disasters-Forest related disasters-Wind and water related disasters-deforestation-Use of space technology for control of geological disasters-Master thesis
UNIT II : Technological Disasters-Case studies of Technology disasters with statistical details-Emergencies and control measures-APELL-Onsite and Offsite emergencies-Crisis management groups-Emergency centers and their functions throughout the country-Softwares on emergency controls-Monitoring devices for detection of gases in the atmosphere-Right to know act
UNIT III : Introduction to Sustainable Development-Bio Diversity-Atmospheric pollution-Global warming and Ozone Depletion-ODS banking and phasing out-Sea level rise-El Nino and climate changes-Eco friendly products-Green movements-Green philosophy-Environmental Policies-Environmental Impact Assessment-case studies-Life cycle
UNIT IV : Offshore and onshore drilling-control of fires-Case studies-Marine pollution and control-Toxic, hazardous and Nuclear wastes-state of India’s and Global environmental issues-carcinogens-complex emergencies-Earthquake disasters-the nature-extreme event analysis-the immune system-proof and limits
UNIT V : Environmental education-Population and community ecology-Natural resources conservation-Environmental protection and law-Research methodology and systems analysis-Natural resources conservation-Policy initiatives and future prospects-Risk assessment process, assessment for different disaster types-Assessment data use, destructive capacity-risk adjustment-choice-loss acceptance-disaster aid- public liability insurance-stock taking and vulnerability analysis-disaster profile of the country-national policies-objectives and standards-physical event modification-preparedness, forecasting and warning, land use planning
CHAPTER-17 OHSAS 18000 AND ISO 14000
UNIT I OHSAS STANDARD
Introduction – Development of OHSAS standard – Structure and features of OSHAS 18001 – Benefits of certification-certification procedure – OH and S management system element, specification and scope – correspondence between OHSAS 18001, ISO 14001:1996 and ISO 9001:1994 – Guidelines (18002:2000) for implementing OHSAS 18001.
UNIT II OHSAS 18001 POLICY AND PLANNING
Developing OH and S policy– Guidelines – Developments – procedure – Content of OH and S policy – General principle, strategy and planning, specific goals, compliance – methodology.
Planning – Guidelines, methodology steps developing action plan – Analysis and identify the priorities, objective and Targets, short term action plan, benefits and cost of each option, Development of action plan.
UNIT III IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION, CHECKING AND REVIEW
Guidelines for structure and Responsibilities, Top Management, middle level management, co-ordinator and employees – Developing procedures, identifying training needs, providing training, documentation of training, Training methodology consultation and communications.
Checking and Review; performance measurement and monitoring, Proactive and Reactive monitoring, measurement techniques, inspections, measuring equipment – Accidents reports, Process and procedures, recording, investigation corrective action and follow up – records and records management. Handling documentation, information, records.
UNIT IV ISO 14001
EMS, ISO 14001, specifications, objectives, Environmental Policy, Guidelines and Principles (ISO 14004), clauses 4.1 to 4.5. Documentation requirements, 3 levels of documentation for a ISO 14000 based EMS, steps in ISO 14001.
Implementation plan, Registration, Importance of ISO 14000 to the Management. Auditing ISO14000-General principles of Environmental Audit, Auditor, steps in audit, Audit plan.
UNIT V ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT
ISO 14040(LCA), General principles of LCA, Stages of LCA, Report and Review. ISO 14020 (Eco labeling) – History, 14021, 14024, Type I labels, Type II labels, ISO 14024, principles, rules for eco labeling before company attempts for it. Advantages. EIA in EMS, Types of EIA, EIA methodology EIS, Scope, Benefits.
Audit-methodology, Auditors Audit results management review-Continual improvement.
CHAPTER-18 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEMS
UNIT I INTRODUCTION
Intelligence – Definition, types cognitive aspect approach, measuring intelligence – early efforts, IQ and AI: aspects of intelligence – learning, problem solving, creativity, behaviour and biology. Artificial intelligence: Historical background, applications of AI, objections and myths, AI languages: Introduction to PROLOG and LISP.
UNIT II COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
The mind – informative and cybernetics, components for thought, modes of perception – visual, auditory and other systems: memory mechanisms, problem solving – planning, search, the GPS systems; types of learning – rote, parameter, method and concept: Game playing, reasoning, Artificial Vision – picture processing – identifying real objects; Vision programs, factory vision systems.
UNIT III KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING
Introduction – role of knowledge engineer, knowledge representation – psychology, production rules, logic and programming, Common sense and fuzzy logic, semantic networks, learning systems.
UNIT IV EXPERT SYSTEMS
Introduction, knowledge acquisition for Expert system, features of Expert systems –System structure, inference Engines, uncertainties, memory mechanisms, range of applications, actual expert systems – VP expert. Assignment – Development of a simple expert system.
UNIT V INTRODUCTION TO NEURAL NETWORKS
Neural Network Architecture – Learning methods – Architecture of a Back Propagation Network – Selection of parameters – Simple variations of BPN.