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The term ‘Biosphere Reserve’ should denote an area:
- which is, set aside for the conservation of the resources of the biosphere and for the improvement of the relationship between man and the environment;
- which is, to serve as sites for long term scientific research as well as education all over the world.
The programme of Biosphere Reserve was initiated under the ‘Man & Biosphere’ (MAB) programme by UNESCO in 1971. Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. They are internationally recognized, nominated by National Governments and remain under sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located. Biosphere Reserves serve in some ways as ‘living laboratories’ for testing out and demonstrating integrated management of land, water and biodiversity (CES., UNESCO, 2005., IUCN, 1979).
Biosphere Reserve Objectives
Each Biosphere Reserve is intended to fulfill three basic functions, which are complementary and mutually reinforcing:
- A conservation function – to contribute to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation;
- A development function – to foster economic and human development which is socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable;
- A logistic function – to provide support for research, monitoring, education and information exchange related to local, national and global issues of conservation and development (UNESCO, 2005).
List of Biosphere Reserves in India
|Name||Year of establishment||District||State|
|Achanakmar-Amarkantak||2005||Anupur, Dindori & Bilaspur||Madhya Pradesh & Chhattishgarh|
|Dehang-Debang||1998||Siang & Debang Valley||Arunachal Pradesh|
|Dibru-Saikhowa||1997||Dibrugarh and Tinsukia||Assam|
|Great Nicobar||1989||Southern most Island of Andaman and Nicobar||Andaman and Nicobar|
|Gulf of Mannar||1989||Indian part of Gulf of Mannar||Tamil Nadu|
|Manas||1989||Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamprup and Darang||Assam|
|Nanda Devi||1988||Chamoli, Almora, and Pithoragarh,||Uttaranchal|
|Nilgiri||1986||Part of Wayanad, Bandipur, and Nagarhole, Nilambur, Silent Valley and Siruvani Hills||Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka|
|Nokrek||1988||Part of Garo Hills||Meghalaya|
|Pachmarhi||1999||Betul, Hoshangabad and Chindwara||Madhya Pradesh|
|Sunderbans||1989||Delta of Ganges and Brahmaputra||West Bengal|